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Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease using pulse oximetry

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Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease using pulse oximetry: The most common congenital disorder in newborns is congenital heart disease (CHD). In the first year of life requiring surgery or catheter- based intervention is known as Critical CHD. Normally in case of infants with critical cardiac lesions, the risk of morbidity and mortality increases when there is a delay in diagnosis and timely referral to a tertiary center with expertise in treating these patients.

Pulse oximetry:  it is a non-invasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation. The application mode of pulse oximetry includes, a sensor device is placed on a thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the case of an infant, across a foot. In this process the device passes two wavelengths of light through the body part to a photodetector.  The changing absorbance at each of the wavelength are measured by this, which allowing it to determine the absorbance due to …

Bronchitis (Acute) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Cures:

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Bronchitis (Acute) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Cures: An inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes is known as Bronchitis. There are two types of bronchitis1) acute bronchitis, and 2) chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is defined as a cough lasting five or more days also known as a chest cold, the cough may linger for weeks. In some cases people with recurrent acute bronchitis develop chronic bronchitis and a respiratory infection. Chronic bronchitis is known to be lasts for at least 3 months, 2 years in a row. It is defined as a cough that occurs every day with sputum production. Medical attention is required for chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions included in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).


Viral or bacterial infection are the most common way for infection, due to this people become infected with or “get” acute bronchitis.Irritants like tobacco smoke, air pollution, or chemicals are the other causes.
Symptoms: Cough is the primary …

Serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity)

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Serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity):
Serotonin syndrome or toxicity is known to be one type of life-threatening condition related with increased serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS). It is otherwise known as serotonin toxicity.  Serotonin syndrome also seen with therapeutic medication use .It is also includes inadvertent interactions between drugs, and intentional self-poisoning.

Cause:Serotonin syndrome can be caused by a large number of medications and street drugs when taken alone at high doses or in combination with other serotonergic drugs. Serotonin syndrome has been detected in all age groups, including newborns and the elderly.
Physical examination: tachycardia and hypertension are the typical vital sign abnormalities, but in severe cases may develop hyperthermia and dramatic swings in pulse and blood pressure. Pertinent physical examination findings may include: Hyperthermia, Agitation, Inducible or spontaneous muscle clonus, Muscle rigidity.
Patients wit…

How to treat and prevent ear barotrauma

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How to treat and prevent ear barotrauma:
Barotrauma is one type of physical damage to body tissues caused by a change in pressure around the ear. A person can feel pain. Discomfort in the middle of their ear or can cause discomfort or pain as well as difficulty hearing.

It is important that people understand what ear barotrauma is so that they can seek medical attention if necessary.  The condition of barotrauma can be acute or chronic. Acute cases are common and generally harmless. Though, a person with chronic ear barotrauma will experience prolonged symptoms, which may lead to further complications.
Causes of ear barotrauma: The common cause of ear barotrauma is the blockage of the eustachian tube, which connects the ear and mouth and when there are external changes in pressure, the eustachian tube is responsible for maintaining balance. Due to a blockage in the tube, the pressure differences created inside and outside the middle ear can cause the symptoms of ear barotrauma. In case of…

Acute Abdomen Symptoms and Management:

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Acute Abdomen Symptoms and Management: The acute abdomen shows a rapid onset of severe life- threatening symptoms includes the sudden, spontaneous, nontraumatic disorder whose chief manifestation is in the abdominal area.  For acute abdomen urgent operation may be necessary. Acute abdomen has a large number of possible causes and so a structured approach is required.



If the patient has an acute surgical problem the initial assessment for acute abdomen should attempt that requires immediate and prompt surgical intervention, or urgent medical therapy. Abdominal pain is a common problem.
Symptoms and Causes: Vomiting, Haematemesis or melaena, Stool/urine colour, Fainting, dizziness or palpitations, Fever/rigors, Rash or itching, Urinary symptoms, recent weight loss.
Some common causes of acute abdomen usually involve a slower rate of bleeding, but with urgent surgery still required, include bleeding gastric ulcer, ruptured ectopic pregnancy, and trauma. Every patient with abdominal pain shoul…

Hypercalcemic Crisis: Symptoms and Complications

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Hypercalcemic Crisis: Symptoms and Complications
Hypercalcemic crisis is one life-threatening condition that is currently rather rare in which the calcium level in the blood is above normal. The risk factor i.e. too much calcium in the blood can weaken the bones, create kidney stones also shows its effect on heart and brain work.


Symptoms: For mild hypercalcemia, the person might not have signs or symptoms. In severe cases produce signs and symptoms related to the parts of the body affected by the high calcium levels in your blood. 
Examples include: Kidneys. Kidneys have to work harder when the amount of calcium in the blood is too high. This can leads to excessive thirst and frequent urination. Digestive system. Hypercalcemia can cause stomach upset, nausea, vomiting and constipation. Brain. Hypercalcemia can interfere with our brain works, resulting in confusion, lethargy and fatigue. It can leads to depression. Heart.Severe hypercalcemia can interfere with your heart function rarely that …
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Rhabdomyolysis: Causes and Symptoms
The life threatening syndrome due to a direct or indirect muscle injury is known as rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis results from the death of muscle fibers and release of their contents into the bloodstream. This can lead to serious complications such as renal failure. The kidneys cannot remove waste and concentrated urine in case of renal failure. Rhabdomyolysis can even leads to death in rare cases. However, for a good outcome prompt treatment is required.

Symptoms:
The initial symptoms of rhabdomyolysis include: fatigue, low urine output, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, agitation, infrequent urination and fever.
The complications of rhabdomyolysis include very high levels of potassium in the blood.  That can leads to an irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrest, kidney damage (which occurs in up to half of patients), rarely liver damage. After fluid resuscitation a condition called compartment syndrome may also occur. Due to serious compress…